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There have been a number of modern proposals for reform of the calendar, such as the World Calendar, International Fixed Calendar, Holocene calendar, and, recently, the Hanke-Henry Permanent Calendar.Such ideas are mooted from time to time but have failed to gain traction because of the loss of continuity, massive upheaval in implementation, and religious objections.Calendars in antiquity were lunisolar, depending on the introduction of intercalary months to align the solar and the lunar years.

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Amongst such calendar systems was the calendar system of the Persian Empire, which in turn gave rise to the Zoroastrian calendar as well as the Hebrew calendar.

A great number of Hellenic calendars developed in Classical Greece, and with the Hellenistic period also influenced calendars outside of the immediate sphere of Greek influence, giving rise to the various Hindu calendars as well as to the ancient Roman calendar.

A calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a court calendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills.

Periods in a calendar (such as years and months) are usually, though not necessarily, synchronised with the cycle of the sun or the moon.

The course of the Sun and the Moon are the most evident forms of timekeeping, and the year and lunation were most commonly used in pre-modern societies worldwide as time units.

Nevertheless, the Roman calendar contained very ancient remnants of a pre-Etruscan 10-month solar year.The Roman calendar was reformed by Julius Caesar in 45 BC.The Julian calendar was no longer dependent on the observation of the new moon but simply followed an algorithm of introducing a leap day every four years.Similarly, Michael Rappenglueck believes that marks on a 15,000-year-old cave painting represent a lunar calendar.Nearly all calendar systems group consecutive days into "months" and also into "years".A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system.

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